User Guides

Glossary E-I

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These definitions and explanations should provide a comprehensive understanding of key terms related to freshwater management in New Zealand. Keep in mind that the management practices, regulations, and terminology can evolve over time.

E. coli(Escherichia coli) A type of bacteria commonly found in the gut of warm-blooded animals, such as birds and mammals (including people, cows and sheep). It is used to indicate the presence of faecal contamination in waterways, which can be harmful to people and stock.  Monitoring E. coli levels is important for assessing water safety for recreational and drinking purposes.
Ecological healthRefers to the condition of an ecosystem and its ability to function normally supporting the life-forms and processes naturally associated with it
EcologyThe study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Understanding ecological relationships is crucial for managing freshwater ecosystems sustainably.
EcosystemA complex web of interactions among living organisms and their physical environment. Effective ecosystem management is essential for maintaining water quality and supporting native species.
Efficient use of waterUsing water effectively to avoid wastage. Efficient water use is important for maintaining sustainable water resources and minimizing environmental impact.
Environmental valuesDesirable qualities of water bodies, including ecological function, cultural significance, and recreational value. Protecting these values is a central goal of freshwater management.
ErosionThe process of soil detachment and movement caused by factors like water runoff and wind. Erosion control measures are crucial for preventing sedimentation in water bodies.
FaunaAnimal life within a specific area. In freshwater management, understanding the fauna present helps assess ecosystem health and biodiversity.
FertigationCombining irrigation with the application of fertilizers or nutrients. Proper fertigation practices help prevent nutrient leaching and water contamination.
FloraPlant life within a specific area. Managing flora is essential for maintaining habitat quality and supporting aquatic ecosystems.
Freshwater Management Unit (FMU)A defined geographical area used for managing freshwater resources set by regional councils. FMUs help tailor management approaches to specific water bodies and their catchments.
Forage cropsCrops grown to provide supplementary feed for livestock. Proper management of forage crops helps minimize soil erosion and nutrient runoff.
Freshwater objectivesSpecific goals and targets set to achieve desired water quality and ecosystem outcomes. These objectives guide decision-making and management actions. Freshwater objectives are set in regional planning documents and describe the desired state of the water body.
Good management practice (GMP)Environmentally responsible and sustainable methods used in activities such as agriculture. Adhering to GMP helps minimize negative impacts on water quality.
GroundwaterThe water present beneath the Earth’s surface in underground aquifers. Managing groundwater resources involves monitoring extraction rates and preventing overuse or contamination.
HapūA Māori term referring to a sub-tribe or clan. Hapū often have a strong connection to specific water bodies and play a role in freshwater management decisions.
HāpuaMeans a shallow lake at the lower extent of a river, separated from the sea by a bank of sand or shingle.
HauoraA Māori concept encompassing health, well-being, and resilience. Hauora of waterways is an important consideration in freshwater management.
IkaThe Māori word for fish. Managing fish populations and habitats is a key component of freshwater management.
Imperfectly drained soilsSoils with poor drainage characteristics. Managing these soils is important to prevent waterlogging and improve land productivity.
InangaThe most common species found in whitebait—common galaxias
Infringement noticeA notice issued for violations of regulations or resource consent conditions. Infringement notices help enforce compliance with freshwater management rules.
InvertebrateAn animal without a backbone (vertebrae). For example, insects and crustaceans, such as crabs Monitoring invertebrates in freshwater ecosystems helps assess ecosystem health and water quality.
IwiA Māori tribe. Iwi have significant cultural connections to water bodies and play a role in freshwater management decisions.