User Guides

Glossary J-M

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These definitions and explanations should provide a comprehensive understanding of key terms related to freshwater management in New Zealand. Keep in mind that the management practices, regulations, and terminology can evolve over time.

KaiThe Māori term for food. Sustainable management of water bodies is crucial for supporting traditional food practices (mahinga kai).
KaitiakiA Māori term referring to a guardian or protector. Kaitiaki have a responsibility to care for and protect water bodies and their associated values.
KaitiakitangaThe Māori concept of guardianship and responsible stewardship of natural resources, including water bodies.
KākahiFreshwater mussels that play a role in water filtration and ecosystem health. Protecting kākahi habitats is important for maintaining water quality.
Ki uta ki taiLiterally “from the mountains to the sea”—continuity of flow. Water as a resource is viewed holistically and as such must be managed in an integrated and collaborative way, acknowledging the connections between precipitation, surface water, ground water, land use and the coast. It is a holistic, whole ecosystem approach to kaitiakitanga.
KouraThe Māori term for freshwater crayfish. Managing koura populations is important for both ecological and cultural reasons.
Land Unit (LU)An area of contiguous or non-contiguous land within a farm or farming enterprise with similar biophysical features, such as soil type, slope, climate and drainage, that will respond similarly under farm management activities.
LeachingThe movement of chemicals and nutrients through soil layers and into groundwater or surface water. Managing leaching is crucial for preventing water contamination.
Limited notificationIf your activity has relatively localised effects but you are unable to obtain the written approval of all the affected persons, then only these people will be given an opportunity to lodge a submission on your resource consent application
LimitsMaximum allowable resource use levels set by regulations or resource management plans. These limits ensure that water bodies are not overexploited or degraded.
MacroinvertebratesAn invertebrate that is large enough to be seen with the naked eye (without a microscope). For example, insect larvae, worms, snails. Monitoring macroinvertebrates helps assess water quality and ecosystem health.
Mahinga kaiMeans ‘to work the food’ and relates to the traditional value of food resources and their ecosystems, as well as the practices involved in producing, procuring, and protecting these resources. The work (mahi), methods and cultural activities (tikanga) involved in obtaining food and resources
Mana whenuaA Māori term referring to authority or chieftainship over a specific area or resource, often including water bodies.
MarginThe land immediately adjacent to a river, wetland, lake or estuary which is likely to be affected by a high water table, flooding, fluvial erosion, or sediment deposition, and often contains distinctive vegetation.
MauriThe Māori concept of the life force or essence of a natural resource. Protecting the mauri of water bodies is a central consideration in freshwater management.
Minimum tillageAn alternative to conventional cultivation aimed at minimising disturbance of the soil after spraying with herbicide. The soil is lightly worked with a cultivator before drilling of seed.  It helps prevent soil erosion and sediment runoff, maintaining water quality.